There are a number of satiety gut hormones which act naturally to reduce food intake, and their increase is responsible for weight loss after bariatric surgery; bariatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention and treatment of obesity. These gut hormones include oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY and GLP-1/glucagon.
To massively reduce weight and cause diabetes remission combinations are very powerful, and better than Roux-en-Y surgery; we have seen this in our combination trials of natural GLP-1, oxyntomodulin and peptide YY in patients with diabetes.
Following our first Phase 1 clinical trial of an analogue of oxyntomodulin (TKS 1225) we established the biotechnology company Thiakis. It was subsequently bought by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals for $150m. In 2016, a Phase 1B trial of pancreatic polypeptide PP 1420 showed safety and tolerability at doses of 32 mg. The weekly peptide YY analogue Y242 Phase 1 trial significantly reduces food intake and body weight in a Phase 1 28-day trial. The first time in humans (FTIH) trial of its more potent successor Y3394 is due to start in 2016, and is supported by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Developmental Clinical Studies scheme.
Our glucagon and GLP-1 analogue G3215 has been shown to induce significant weight loss in its Phase 1 FTIH trial, and is also being supported by the MRC Developmental Clinical Studies scheme. We have also developed and patented a novel food ingredient – inulin propionate ester – to prevent weight gain. We have conducted the first in man study and proof of principle studies (2010) with an intervention period of six months. This work was published in Gut (2015). We are currently in discussions with the Italian food ingredient company Millbo to translate the inulin propionate ester into the food chain.